Senior ministers Rishi Sunak, Liz Truss, Ben Wallace, Dominic Raab and Priti Patel also have been sanctioned and barred from entering the Russian Federation.
Kwasi Kwarteng, Nadine Dorries, James Heappey, Suella Braverman and Theresa May also faced the ban.
Officials said the move was taken “in view of the unprecedented hostile action by the British government”.
It was also done in retaliation to top Russian officials being sanctioned, they said.
Moscow said in a statement: “In connection with the unprecedented hostile actions of the British government, expressed, in particular, in the imposition of sanctions against top officials of the Russian Federation, a decision was made to include key members of the British government and a number of political figures in the Russian ‘stop list’.
“This step was taken as a response to London’s unbridled information and political campaign aimed at isolating Russia internationally, creating conditions for containing our country and strangling the domestic economy.
“In essence, the British leadership is deliberately aggravating the situation around Ukraine, pumping the Kyiv regime with lethal weapons and coordinating similar efforts on the part of NATO. The instigation of London is also unacceptable, which is strongly pushing not only its Western allies, but also other countries to introduce large-scale anti-Russian sanctions, which, however, are senseless and counterproductive.
“The Russophobic course of the British authorities, whose main task is to stir up a negative attitude towards our country, curtail bilateral ties in almost all areas, is detrimental to the well-being and interests of the inhabitants of Britain itself. Any sanctions attacks will inevitably hit their initiators and receive a decisive rebuff.”
Moscow said it would expand the list of sanctions soon.
It added: “In the near future, this list will be expanded to include British politicians and parliamentarians who contribute to whipping up anti-Russian hysteria, pushing the “collective West” to use the language of threats in dialogue with Moscow, and shamelessly inciting the Kiev neo-Nazi regime.”
The UK has been targeting Russia and its oligarchs with sanctions to “decimate Vladimir Putin’s war machine”.
It has sanctioned the largest Russian bank and plans to end the imports of Russian coal and oil by the end of 2022.
Ukraine’s President Zelensky hailed the Prime Minister’s “historical leadership” in rallying allies to send weapons to Ukraine.
Previously, the Prime Minister said he was “deeply hostile” to Putin’s war but he said the invasion has been “inhuman and barbaric”.
Speaking at an emergency NATO summit in Brussels, he said: “What Vladimir Putin is doing, the way he’s leading Russia at the moment, is utterly catastrophic – his invasion of Ukraine is inhuman and barbaric.
”And the conduct of that invasion is now moving into the type of behaviour that we haven’t seen in the continent of Europe for 80 years, and it’s horrific.
”So you can be sympathetic towards ordinary Russians, who are being so badly led, but you can be deeply hostile to the decisions of Vladimir Putin.”
The sanctions comes after Russia warned the US of “unpredictable consequences” if it sends more weapons to Ukraine, according to reports.